Friday, 18th. In steering along shore at the distance of 2 Leagues off our Soundings was from 24 to 32 fathoms Sandy bottom. At 6 P.M. the North point set at Noon bore North 1/4 West; distant 4 Leagues; at 10 it bore North-West by West 1/2 West, and as we had seen no land to the Northward of it we brought too, not knowing which way to steer, having at this time but little wind, and continued so for the most part of the night. At 2 P.M. we made sail with the wind at South-West, and at daylight saw the land extending as far as North 3/4 East. The point set last night bore South-West by West, distant 3 or 4 Leagues; I have named it Double Island Point, on account of its figure (Latitude 25 degrees 58 minutes South, Longitude 206 degrees 48 minutes West). The land within this point is of a moderate and pretty equal height, but the point itself is of such an unequal Height that it looks like 2 Small Islands laying under the land; it likewise may be known by the white Clifts on the North side of it. Here the land trends to the North-West, and forms a large open bay, in the bottom of which the land appear’d to be very low, in so much that we could but just see it from the Deck. In crossing the mouth of this bay our Depth of Water was from 30 to 32 fathoms, a white sandy bottom. At Noon we were about 3 Leagues from the Land, and in the Latitude of 25 degrees 34 minutes South, Longitude 206 degrees 45 minutes West; Double Island Point bore South 3/4 West, and the Northermost land in sight North 3/4 East. The land hereabouts, which is of a moderate height, appears more barren than any we have yet seen on this Coast, and the Soil more sandy, there being several large places where nothing else is to be seen; in other places the woods look to be low and Shrubby, nor did we see many signs of inhabitants.
Thursday, 17th. Winds Southerly, mostly a fresh breeze, with which in the P.M. we steer’d along shore North 3/4 East, at the distance of about 2 Leagues off. Between 4 and 5 we discover’d breakers on our Larboard bow; our Depth of Water at this time was 37 fathoms. At sunset the Northermost land in sight bore North by West, the breakers North-West by West, distant 4 Miles, and the Northermost land set at Noon, which form’d a Point, I named Point Lookout, bore West, distant 5 or 6 Miles (Latitude 27 degrees 26 minutes). On the North side of this point the shore forms a wide open bay, which I have named Morton’s Bay, in the Bottom of which the land is so low that I could but just see it from the Topmast head. The breakers I have just mentioned lies about 3 or 4 Miles from Point Lookout; at this time we had a great Sea from the Southward, which broke prodigious high upon them. Stood on North-North-East until 8, when, being past the breakers, and having Deepned our water to 52 fathoms, we brought too until 12 o’Clock, then made sail to the North-North-East. At 4 A.M. we sounded, and had 135 fathoms. At daylight I found that we had in the night got much farther to the Northward and from the Shore than I expected from the Course we steer’d, for we were at least 6 or 7 Leagues off, and therefore hauled in North-West by West, having the Advantage of a Fresh Gale at South-South-West. The Northermost land seen last night bore from us at this time South-South-West, distant 6 Leagues. This land I named Cape Morton, it being the North point of the Bay of the same Name (Latitude 26 degrees 56 minutes South, Longitude 206 degrees 28 minutes). From Cape Morton the Land Trends away West, further than we could see, for there is a small space where we could see no land; some on board where of opinion that there is a River there because the Sea looked paler than usual. Upon sounding we found 34 fathoms fine white sandy bottom, which alone is Sufficient change, the apparent Colour of Sea Water, without the Assistance of Rivers. The land need only to be low here, as it is in a Thousand other places upon the Coast, to have made it impossible for us to have seen it at the distance we were off. Be this as it may, it was a point that could not be clear’d up as we had the wind; but should any one be desirous of doing it that may come after me, this place may always be found by 3 Hills which lay to the Northward of it in the Latitude of 26 degrees 53 minutes South. These hills lay but a little way inland, and not far from Each other; they are very remarkable on account of their Singular form of Elivation, which very much resembles Glass Houses, which occasioned my giving them that Name. The Northermost of the 3 is the highest and largest. There are likewise several other peaked hills inland to the Northward of these, but they are not near so remarkable. At Noon we were by Observation in the Latitude of 26 degrees 28 minutes South, which was 10 Miles to the Northward of the Log; a Circumstance that hath not hapned since we have been upon the Coast before. Our Course and distance run since Yesterday noon was North by West 80 Miles, which brought us into the Longitude of 206 degrees 46 minutes. At this time we were about 2 or 3 Leagues from the land, and in 24 fathoms Water; a low bluff point, which was the Southern point of an open Sandy bay, bore North 52 degrees West, distant 3 Leagues, and the Northermost point of land in sight bore North 1/4 East. Several Smokes seen to-day, and some pretty far inland.
Wednesday, 16th. Winds Southerly, a fresh Gale, with which we steer’d North along shore until sunset, at which time we discover’d breakers ahead, and on our Larboard bow, being at this time in 20 fathoms, and about 5 miles from the land. Haul’d off East until 8, at which time we had run 8 Miles, and had increased our Depth of Water to 44 fathoms. We then brought too with her head to the Eastward, and lay on this Tack until 10 o’Clock, when, having increased our Soundings to 78 fathoms, we wore and lay with her head in shore until 5 o’Clock a.m., when we made Sail. At daylight we were surprized by finding ourselves farther to the Southward than we were in the evening, and yet it had blown strong all night Southerly. We now saw the breakers again within us, which we passed at the distance of about 1 League; they lay in the Latitude of 28 degrees 8 minutes South, and stretch off East 2 Leagues from a point under which is a small Island; their situation may always be found by the peaked mountain before mentioned, which bears South-West by West from them, and on their account I have named it Mount Warning. It lies 7 or 8 Leagues in land in the Latitude of 28 degrees 22 minutes South. The land is high and hilly about it, but it is Conspicuous enough to be distinguished from everything else. The point off which these shoals lay I have named Point Danger; to the Northward of it the land, which is low, Trends North-West by North; but we soon found that it did not keep that direction long before it turn’d again to the Northward. At Noon we were about 2 Leagues from the land, and by observation in the Latitude of 27 degrees 46 minutes, which was 17 Miles to the Southward of the Log; Longitude 206 degrees 26 minutes West. Mount Warning bore South 20 degrees West, distant 14 Leagues; the Northermost land in sight bore North. Our Course and distance made good since yesterday North 1 degree 45 minutes West, 53 miles.
Tuesday, 15th. Fresh Gales at South-West, West-South-West, and South-South-West. In the P.M. had some heavy Squalls, attended with rain and hail, which obliged us to close reef our Topsails. Between 2 and 4 we had some small rocky Islands between us and the land; the Southermost lies in the Latitude of 30 degrees 10 minutes, the Northermost in 29 degrees 58 minutes, and about 2 Leagues or more from the land; we sounded, and had 33 fathoms about 12 Miles without this last island. At 8 we brought too until 10, at which time we made sail under our Topsails. Having the Advantage of the Moon we steer’d along shore North and North by East, keeping at the distance of about 3 Leagues from the land having from 30 to 25 fathoms. As soon as it was daylight we made all the sail we could, having the Advantage of a fresh Gale and fair weather. At 9, being about a League from the Land, we saw upon it people and Smoke in Several places. At noon we were by observation in the Latitude of 28 degrees 39 minutes South, and Longitude 206 degrees 27 minutes West; Course and distance saild since Yesterday at Noon North 6 degrees 45 minutes East, 104 Miles. A Tolerable high point of land bore North-West by West, distant 3 Miles; this point I named Cape Byron (Latitude 28 degrees 37 minutes 30 seconds South, Longitude 206 degrees 30 minutes West). It may be known by a remarkable sharp peaked Mountain lying in land North-West by West from it. From this point the land Trends North 13 degrees West. Inland it is pretty high and hilly, but near the Shore it is low; to the Southward of the Point the land is low, and Tolerable level.
Monday, 14th. At the P.M. it fell Calm, and continued so about an hour, when a breeze sprung up at North-East, with which we stood in shore until 6 o’Clock, when, being in 30 fathoms and 3 or 4 Miles from the land, we Tack’d, having the wind at North-North-West. At this time Smoky Cape bore South 3/4 degrees West, distant about 5 Leagues, and the Northermost land in sight North 1/4 degrees East. At 8 we made a Trip in shore for an hour; after this the wind came off Shore, with which we stood along shore to the Northward, having from 30 to 21 fathoms, at the distance of 4 or 5 Miles from the Land. At 5 A.M. the Wind veer’d to North, and blow’d a fresh breeze, attended with Squalls and dark cloudy weather. At 8 it began to Thunder and Rain, which lasted about an Hour, and then fell Calm, which gave us an opportunity to sound, and found 86 fathoms, being about 4 or 5 Leagues from the Land; after this we got the wind Southerly, a fresh breeze and fair weather, and we Steer’d North by West for the Northermost land we had in sight. At noon we were about 4 Leagues from the land, and by observation in the Latitude of 30 degrees 22 minutes South, which was 9 Miles to the Southward of that given by the Log. Longitude in 206 degrees 39 minutes West, and Course and distance made good since Yesterday Noon North 16 degrees East, 22 miles; some Tolerable high land near the Shore bore West. As I have not mentioned the Aspect of the Country since we left Botany Bay, I shall now describe it as it hath at different times appear’d to us. As we have advanced to the Northward the land hath increased in height, in so much that in this Latitude it may be called a hilly Country; but between this and Botany Bay it is diversified with an agreeable variety of Hills, Ridges, and Valleys, and large plains all Cloathed with wood, which to all appearance is the same as I have before mentioned, as we could discover no Visible alteration in the Soil. Near the shore the land is in general low and Sandy, except the points which are rocky, and over many of them are pretty high hills, which at first rising out of the Water appear like a Island.
Sunday, 13th. In the P.M. stood in shore with the Wind at North-East until 6, at which time we Tack’d, being about 3 or 4 miles from the land, and in 24 fathoms. Stood off shore with a fresh breeze at North and North-North-West until midnight, then Tack’d, being in 118 fathoms and 8 Leagues from the Land. At 3 a.m. the wind veer’d to the Westward, and we Tack’d and stood to the Northward. At noon we were by Observation in the Latitude of 30 degrees 43 minutes South, and Longitude 206 degrees 45 minutes West, and about 3 or 4 Leagues from the Land, the Northermost part of which bore from us North 13 degrees West; and a point or head land, on which were fires that Caused a great Quantity of smoke, which occasioned my giving it the name of Smokey Cape, bore South-West, distant 4 Leagues; it is moderately high land. Over the pitch of the point is a round hillock; within it 2 others, much higher and larger, and within them very low land (Latitude 30 degrees 51 minutes, Longitude 206 degrees 5 minutes West). Besides the smoke seen upon this Cape we saw more in several places along the Coast. The observed Latitude was only 5 Miles to the Southward of the Log.
Saturday, 12th. Winds Southerly, a Gentle breeze in the P.M. As we run along Shore we saw several smokes a little way in land from the Sea, and one upon the Top of a hill, which was the first we have seen upon elevated ground since we have been upon the Coast. At sunset we were in 23 fathoms, and about a League and a half from the land, the Northermost part of which we had in sight bore North 13 degrees East; and 3 remarkable large high hills lying Contigious to each other, and not far from the shore, bore North-North-West. As these Hills bore some resemblance to each other we called them the 3 Brothers. We steer’d North-East by North all Night, having from 27 to 67 fathoms, from 2 to 5 and 6 Leagues from the Land, and at day light we steer’d North for the Northermost land we had in sight. At noon we were 4 Leagues from the Land, and by observation in the Latitude of 31 degrees 18 minutes South, which was 15 miles to the Southward of that given by the Log. Our Course and distance made good since Yesterday noon was North 24 degrees East, 48 miles. Longitude 206 degrees 58 minutes West; several smokes seen a little way in land.